A SMALL STEP TOWARDS "EMBODIED COGNITION"
Translating the blueprint that batoid fish such as stingrays and skates provide, we created an artificial animal, tissue-engineered ray capable of orchestrating adaptive maneuvering and phototactic navigation.
The impossibility of replicating batoids' neural system is bypassed by outsourcing its algorithmic functionalities to the body composite mechanics. The active control problem is therefore cast into a design problem.
This study is but a first step in engineering multilevel systems that link neuro-dynamics, mechanics, and complex controllable gaits-coupling sensory information to motor coordination and movement that leads to behavior. This work paves the way for the development of autonomous and adaptive artificial creatures able to process multiple sensory inputs and produce complex behaviors in distributed systems and may represent a path toward soft-robotic “embodied cognition”.
Pagan‐Diaz GJ, Zhang X, Grant L, Kim Y, Aydin O, Cvetkovic C, Ko E, Solomon E, Hollis J, Kong H, Saif T, Gazzola M, Bashir R, Simulation and fabrication of stronger, larger and faster walking biohybrid machines, Advanced Functional Materials, 2018.
Park SJ, Gazzola M, Park KS, Park S, Di Santo V, Blevins EL, Lind JU, Campbell PH, Dauth S, Capulli A, Pasqualini FS, Ahn S, Cho A, Yuan H, Maoz BM, Vijaykumar R, Choi JW, Deisseroth K, Lauder GV, Mahadevan L, Parker KK, Phototactic guidance of a tissue-engineered soft-robotic ray, Science, 2016. _Cover_